小学英语基础知识,想不考高分都难!

 

小学英语学习无非就是单词的记忆和语法知识点的掌握。在刚接触英语的小学阶段,学生学起来难免会觉得英语枯燥无味。由于孩子本身还小,接受新知识能力弱,再一个就是小孩子容易贪玩注意力不集中,他们很难静下心真正学习英语。要知道,小学英语的知识比较简单、基础,如果孩子对其加以下些功夫,考试是不成问题的。所以,家长应该多重视孩子学习多引导孩子学习。

{  第一部分  }

基础知识

 

1.字母:26个字母的大小

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

 

2.音标:48个音标

3.词汇:词汇量,近反义词

4.句子:大小写,标点符号

{  第二部分  }

语法知识

.名词:名词单复数,名词的格

  ()名词单复数

  1.一般情况,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds

  2.s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches

  3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变yi, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries

  4.以“ffe”结尾,变ffev, 再加-es,如:knife-knives

  5.不规则名词复数:

  man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice

  child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese

  不可数名词的复数就是原型: paper, juice, water, milk, rice, tea

  ()名词的格

  (1) 有生命的东西的名词所有格:

  a) 单数后加 ’s : Lucys ruler my fathers shirt

  b) s 结尾的复数名词后加 ’如: his friends bags

  c) 不以s 结尾的复数后加 ’s childrens shoes

  l并列名词中,如果把 ’s加在最后一个名词后,表示共有, :

  Tom and Mikes car 汤姆和迈克共有的小汽车

  l要表示所有物不是共有的,应分别在并列名词后加’s

  Toms and Mikes cars 汤姆和麦克各自的小汽车

  (2)表示无生命东西的名词通常用“ of +名词”来表示所有关系:如:

  a picture of the classroom a map of China

.冠词:不定冠词,定冠词种类:

  (1)不定冠词:a / an

  元音开头的可数名词前用an :

  an egg / an apple / an orange / an eraser / an answer / an ID card / an alarm clock / an actor / an actress / an e-mail / an address / an event / an example / an opera / an houran old man / an interesting book / an exciting sport / an action movie / an art lesson /

  (2)定冠词:the

  定冠词的用法:

  (1)特指某()人或某()物: The ruler is on the desk.

  (2)复述上文提到的人或物:He has a sweater. The sweater is new.

  (3)谈话双方都知道的人或物:The boys arent at school.

  (4)在序数词前: Johns birthday is February the second.

  (5)用于固定词组中: in the morning / afternoon / evening

  不用冠词的情况:

  (1)专有名词前:China is a big country.

  (2)名词前有定语:this , that , my , your , some, any , no 等:

  This is my baseball.

  (3)复数名词表示一类人和事:Monkeys cant swim. They are teachers.

  (4)在节日,日期,月份,季节前:Today is Christmas Day. Its Sunday.

  (5)一日三餐前:We have breakfast at 6:30.

  (6)球类 棋类运动前:They often play football after class. He plays chess at home.

  * 但乐器前要用定冠词:I play the guitar very well.

  (7)学科名称前:My favorite subject is music.

  (8)在称呼或头衔的名词前:This is Mr Li.

  (9)固定词组中:at noon at night by bus

三、代词、形容词、副词

  代词:人称代词,物主代词

  人称代词物主代词

  主格宾格

  第一

  人称单数I()memy(我的)

  复数we(我们)usour(我们的)

  第二

  人称单数you()youyour(你的)

  复数you(你们)youyour(你们的)

  第三

  人称单数he()himhis(他的)

  she()herher(她的)

  it()itits(它的)

  复数they(他们/她们/它们)themtheir(他们的/她们的/它们的)

  形容词,副词:比较级,最高级

  ()、形容词的比较级

  1、形容词比较级在句子中的运用:两个事物或人的比较用比较级,比较级后面一般带有单词than。比较级前面可以用more, a little来修饰表示程度。than后的人称代词用主格(口语中可用宾格)

  2.形容词加er的规则:

  ⑴ 一般在词尾加er ;

  ⑵ 以字母e 结尾,加r ;

  ⑶ 以一个元音字母和一个辅音字母结尾,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加er ;

  ⑷ 以“辅音字母+y”结尾,先把yi,再加er

  3.不规则形容词比较级:

  good-better, beautiful-more beautiful

  ()副词的比较级

  1.形容词与副词的区别(be用形,有形用be;有动用副,有副用动)

  ⑴在句子中形容词一般处于名词之前或be动词之后

  ⑵副词在句子中最常见的是处于实义动词之后

  2.副词比较级的变化规则基本与形容词比较级相同(不规则变化:well-better, far-farther)
 

四、数词:基数词、序数词

    基数词

  (1)1-20

  onetwothreefourfivesixseveneightnineteneleventwelvethirteenfourteenfifteen sixteenseventeeneighteennineteentwenty

  (2)21-99 先说“几十”,再说“几”,中间加连字符。

  23twenty-three34thirty-four45fortyfive56fifty-six67sixty-seven78seventy-eight89eighty-nine91ninety-one

  (3)101999先说“几百”,再加and,再加末两位数或末位数

  586five hundred and eighty-six803eight hundred and three

  (4)l000以上,先从右往左数,每三位数加一个“,”,第一个“,”前为thousand.第二个“,”前为million,第三个“,”前为billion

  1001one thousand and one

  18423eighteen thousandfour hundred and twenty-three

  6260309six million two hundred and sixty thousand three hundred and nine

  750000000000seven hundred and fifty billion

  序数词

  (1)一般在基数词后加th

  eg.fourfourththirteenthirteenth

  (2)不规则变化

  onefirsttwosecondthreethirdfivefiftheighteighthnineninthtwelvetwelfth

  (3)y结尾的十位整数,变yie再加th

  twentytwentieth fortyfortieth ninetyninetieth

  (4)从二十一后的“几十几”直至“几百几十几”或“几千几百几十几”只将个位的基数词变为序数词。

  twenty-firsttwo hundred and forty-fifth

基数词转为序数词的口诀

  

 基变序,有规律,词尾加上-th.

  一,二,三,特殊记,词尾字母t,d,d.

  八去t,九去e, ve要用f替。

  tyy变成ith前面有个e.

  若是碰到几十几,前用基来后用序
 

五、介词:常用介词:in, on, at, behind

  1.at表示时间概念的某一个点。(在某时刻、时间、阶段等)

  at 100(dawnmidnightnoon)在一点钟(黎明、午夜、中午)

  2.on

  1)表示具体日期。

  注:(1)关于"在周末"的几种表示法:

  at(on)the weekend在周末---特指

  at(on)weekends在周末---泛指

  over the weekend在整个周末

  during the weekend在周末期间

   (2)在圣诞节,应说at Christmas?而不说on Christmas?

  2)(刚……)的时候。

  On reaching the city he called up his parents.

  一到城里他就给父母打了一个电话。

  3.in

  1)表示"时段""时期",在多数情况下可以和during互换,前者强调对比,后者强调持续。 in(during)1988(Decemberthe 20th century)在一九八八年(十二月、二十世纪)

 

六、动词:动词的四种时态:

  (1)一般现在时:

  一般现在时的构成

  1. be动词:主语+be(am, is, are)+其它。如: I am a boy. 我是一个男孩。

  2. 行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。 如: We study English. 我们学习英语。

  当主语为第三人称单数(he, she, it)时,要在动词后加"-s""-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。

  动词+s的变化规则

  1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks

  2.s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes

  3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变yi, 再加-es,如:study-studies

  (2)一般过去时:

  动词过去式详解 动词的过去式的构成规则有:

  A、规则动词

  ① 一般直接在动词的后面加ed:如 worked , learned , cleaned , visited

  ② 以e结尾的动词直接加d:如 lived , danced , used

  ③ 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改yi再加ed(此类动词较少) study studied carry carried worry worried (注意playstay不是辅音字母加y,所以不属于此类)

  ④ 双写最后一个字母(此类动词较少) stopped

  B、不规则动词(此类词并无规则,须熟记)小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式:sing sang , eat ate ,

  see saw , have had , do did , go went , take took , buy bought , get got , read read ,fly flew , am/is was ,

  are were , say said , leave left , swim swam , tell told , draw drew , come came , lose lost , find found , drink drank , hurt hurt , feel felt

  (3)一般将来时:

  基本结构:

  ①be going to + do;

  ②will+ do. be going to = will

  I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.

  (4)现在进行时: am,is,are+动词现在分词

  动词现在分词详解 动词的ing形式的构成规则:

  ① 一般的直接在后面加上ing , doing , going , working , singing , eating

  ② 以e 结尾的动词,要先去e再加ing ,如having , writing

  ③ 双写最后一个字母的(此类动词极少)有:running , swimming , sitting , getting

{  第三部分  }

句法

1.陈述句

  (1)肯定句:是指用肯定的语气来陈述的句子,如:Im a student. She is a doctor. He works in a hospital.

  There are four fans in our classroom. He will eat lunch at 12:00. I watched TV yesterday evening.

  (2)、否定句:含有否定词或表示否定意义词的句子,如:Im not a student. She is not (isnt) a doctor.

  He does not (doesnt) work in a hospital. There are not (arent) four fans in our classroom.

  He will not (wont) eat lunch at 12:00. I did not (didnt) watch TV yesterday evening.

                

 2. 疑问句

  一般疑问句:是指询问事实的句子,此类句子必须用“yes”,或“no”来回答。

  特殊疑问句:以特殊疑问词(what , where , who , which , when , whose , why , how)开头引导的句子。此类句子应该问什么就答什么,不能用“yes no”来回答。

                   

 3.There be句型

  There be 句型与have, has的区别

  1There be 句型表示:在某地有某物(或人)

  2、在there be 句型中,主语是单数,be 动词用is ; 主语是复数,be 动词用are ; 如有几件物品,be 动词根据最*be 动词的那个名词决定。

  3there be 句型的否定句在be 动词后加not , 一般疑问句把be 动词调到句首。

  4there be句型与have(has) 的区别:there be 表示在某地有某物(或人);have(has) 表示某人拥有某物。

  5some any there be 句型中的运用:some 用于肯定句, any 用于否定句或疑问句。

  6and or there be句型中的运用:and 用于肯定句, or 用于否定句或疑问句。

  7、针对数量提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是:

  How many + 名词复数 + are there + 介词短语?

  How much + 不可数名词 + is there + 介词短语?

  8、针对主语提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是:

  Whats + 介词短语?

一个真正好的老师,不是教孩子多少知识点,而是传授好的学习方法。一个好的学习方法将决定你的学习生涯。